A growing body of evidence has associated contact with green spaces with improved mental health and wellbeing in adults. Social contacts has been postulated as a potential mechanism underlying such effects. However, the available evidence on the association between green spaces and self-satisfaction and also the mediatory role of social contacts in health benefits of green spaces in adolescents is still very scarce. We aimed to evaluate the association of time spent in different types of green spaces with self-satisfaction and social contacts in adolescents. We also investigated the mediatory role of social contacts in the association of green space use and self-satisfaction.This cross-sectional study was based on a population-representative sample of 10,856 adolescents (10-18 years old) living in urban and rural districts across 30 provinces of Iran (2015). Data on the time spent in green spaces (separately for parks, forests and private gardens), self-satisfaction, social contacts (number of friends and time spent with friends), and socio-demographic characteristics were obtained through questionnaires from parents and children. Logistic mixed effects models with recruitment centre as the random effect were developed to estimate associations adjusted for relevant covariates.More time spent in green spaces was associated with improved self-satisfaction and social contacts. While for the self-satisfaction, there was no indication for effect modification by sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and urbanity, we observed stronger associations for older adolescents (> 14 years old). For social contacts, we found indications for stronger associations for boys, older adolescents, those residing in rural areas, and those from lowest and highest SES groups. Social contacts could explain more than half of the association between green spaces use and self-satisfaction.Our observed enhanced self-satisfaction and social contacts associated with more time spent in green spaces could provide policymakers with measures to improve mental wellbeing of adolescents. Further studies are required to replicate our findings in other populations with different climates, cultures and lifestyles.
In postmenopausal women, the risk of diabetic cardiovascular disease drastically increases compared with that of premenopausal women. In the present study we surveyed the effects of Tamoxifen (TAM) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) on diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction. Female wistar rats were divided into six groups: sham-control, Diabetes, Ovariectomized (OVX) + Diabetes, OVX + Diabetes + Vehicle, OVX + Diabetes + E2, OVX + Diabetes + TAM. Type 2 diabetes was induced by High Fat Diet and low doses of STZ. E2 and TAM were administrated every four days for four weeks. Results show that, TAM or E2 reduces cardiac weight, atherogenic and cardiac risk indices. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) increased in diabetes group, while TAM and E2 prevented MABP increment. Also, fasting blood glucose was decreased by TAM and E2. Significant decrement in the level of IL-10 was observed in diabetes group and this effect was abolished by TAM and E2. Also, treatment with TAM and E2 resulted in improved inflammatory balance in favor of anti-inflammation. Although diabetes resulted in, increment of TC and LDL, TAM and E2 reduced lipids profile. Furthermore, treatment with TAM prevented the reduction of estrogen receptors (ERs) α and β protein levels, but its effect on the ERβ protein level was higher. Our results indicated that TAM protects against diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction and is a good candidate for E2 substitution.
In this paper, we report the application of a reusable electrochemical aptasensor for detection of tryptophan by using [Fe(bpy)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that consists of two subunits, the HIF-1α and HIF-1β (ARNT). Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1 is an adaptive system that regulates the transcription of multiple genes associated with growth, angiogenesis, proliferation, glucose transport, metabolism, pH regulation and cell death. However, aberrant HIF-1 activation contributes to the pathophysiology of several human diseases such as cancer, ischemic cardiovascular disorders, and pulmonary and kidney diseases. A growing body of evidence indicates that curcumin, a natural bioactive compound of turmeric root, significantly targets both HIF-1 subunits, but is more potent against HIF-1α. In this review, we have summarized the knowledge about the pharmacological effects of curcumin on HIF-1 and the related molecular mechanisms that may be effective candidates for the development of multi-targeted therapy for several human diseases.
Anti-proliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of 17‑allylamino‑17‑demethoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG) were studied alone and in combination with Capecitabine (Cap) and/or Irinotecan (IR) on HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Expression of MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase‑9) and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) mRNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. The study was further followed by wound scratch assay for migration assessment. Nitric oxide content, MDA generation and total anti-oxidant capacity were also assessed. Results showed significant differences between mono- and double therapy (p < 0.05). Combination of 17-AAG with IR or Cap resulted in synergistic effect (Combination Index < 1). Among double combination groups only Cap/17-AAG showed significant differences in MMP-9 and VEGF genes expression and wound healing assay. Moreover, a significant decrease of wound area in our triple combination group was obtained, indicating the antagonistic effect. IR/17-AAG and IR/Cap double combination groups resulted in down-regulation of MMP-9 and VEGF mRNA expression, respectively. Significant generation of MDA and decrease in TAC values have been observed in all our tested groups, however, the IR/17-AAG combination was the only group that could elevate NO concentration, significantly. Our findings demonstrated potent anti-angiogenesis and anti-metastatic effects for 17-AAG when it is provided in double combination especially with Cap, suggesting a new protocol in colorectal cancer combination therapy. These findings may indicate that down-regulation of VEGF and MMP-9 genes is directly related to angiogenesis and metastasis.
Diabetic Nephropathy (DN) is one of the microvascular complications of diabetes and its early diagnosis can improve patient's quality of life. Genetic factors may increase the risk of DN development. This study aimed to evaluate the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and DN.A total of 313 Iranian participants including 104 diabetic patients with nephropathy (DN), 100 diabetic patients without nephropathy (D) and 109 healthy people (HC) were studied. The frequencies of rs7975232, rs731236 and rs4516035 variants of VDR gene were determined and compared between three groups. Estimated haplotype frequencies between polymorphisms in the cases and controls were also calculated.No significant differences were identified for allele /genotype frequencies in HC, D and DN groups. However haplotype analysis showed that haplotype encompassing CCC alleles for rs7975232, rs731236 and rs4516035 variants, respectively was more frequent in DN subjects compared to HC (p-value = 0.01) and also, haplotype comprising TCC alleles was more frequent in DN group compared to both HC and D groups (p-value = 0.004 and 0.007, respectively).Our study identified that CCC and TCC VDR haplotypes are risk factors for DN in patients with diabetes type 2.
To investigate impairment in the activity pattern of some muscles involved in sit to stand (STD) and stand to sit (STS) among two low back pain (LBP) subgroups of the Movement System Impairment (MSI) model.Case-control study SETTING: A university medical center PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen healthy women and twenty-two women with chronic LBP in two subgroups (fifteen into the lumbar extension rotation (LER) and seven into lumbar flexion rotation (LFR)) voluntarily participated in this study.Participants were asked to perform STD and STS at a preferred speed. Surface electromyography (EMG) were measured bilaterally from the internal oblique (IO), lumbar erector spine (ES), medial hamstring (MH) and lateral hamstring (LH) muscles.Changes in mean and maximum amplitude, time to peak amplitude, duration of muscle activity and bilateral asymmetry of these variables.During STD, bilateral asymmetry in mean amplitude of MH in the LER subgroup (p=0.031) and bilateral asymmetry in duration of LH in the LFR subgroup(p=0.026) were exhibited. Also, in this task reduced time to peak left MH activation were found in the LFR subgroup than two other groups (control; p=0.028 / LER; p=0.004). During STS, increased left ES maximum amplitude were observed in the LFR subgroup than LER subgroup (p=0.029). Also, reduced time to peak right ES (p=0.035) and left LH (p=0.038) activation in the LER subgroup than healthy subjects and reduced time to peak left LH activation in LFR subgroup than healthy subjects (p=0.041) were observed during STS.The differences between the two LBP subgroups may be a result of impairment in the activity pattern of some muscles during functional activity.
Neospora caninum (N. caninum) and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) are both obligate intracellular protozoan parasites, which have gained considerable attention because of their role in bovine abortion. This study aimed to detect anti-N. caninum and -T. gondii in bulk milk of dairy cattle, Mashhad, Iran. The bulk milk samples were collected from July 2014 to June 2015 and analyzed for anti-N. caninum and -T.gondii antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of 123 bulk milk samples, 44 (35%), 14 (11.38%), and 3 (2.4%) samples had N. caninum, T. gondii, and mixed infection with these two parasites, respectively. According to the results, the prevalence of N. caninum infection was more than T.gondii infection in dairy cattle of Mashhad, Iran.
This study was performed to determine the clinical, hematologic, and biochemical findings in animals affected with lumpy skin disease (LSD) in southwest Iran. Sixty cattle with LSD were included in this study and compared with 20 healthy ones as the control group. The disease was diagnosed based on clinical examination and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of the blood samples. The major observed clinical signs included skin nodules, fever, enlarged lymph nodes, and edema. In hematologic assessment, the average numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes, and platelets, as well as the average level of hemoglobin in the infected animals were significantly lower than in the control group. Biochemical experiments showed that the serum glucose, total and direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine phosphokinase activities in the infected group were significantly elevated. LSD also caused a significant reduction in the levels of serum creatinine, albumin, and iron. In total, LSD was associated with an overall decline in different blood cell types and significant changes in serum biochemical profile. These alterations could be related to the inflammatory disease processes and injuries in various organs, especially the liver. Hematologic and biochemical profiles can be utilized to better understand different aspects of LSD pathogenesis and ultimately improve its prognostic, management, and treatment methods.
Enzootic ovine abortion is caused by Chlamydia abortus and may result in abortion among small ruminants during the last 2-3 weeks of pregnancy. Enzootic abortion is diagnosed by isolation of the agent or detection of its nucleic acid in the products of abortion or vaginal excretions of freshly aborted females. Isolation of chlamydial agents in cell culture is the gold standard, so in the present study this method was employed. Twenty-eight vaginal and conjunctival swab samples were selected from ewes and does that had recently aborted. The samples were inoculated to McCoy cells. The inoculated cells were fixed, stained by Giemsa staining, and mounted on slides. Finally, the slides were observed by an optical microscope for the presence chlamydial inclusion bodies. Chlamydia was isolated from four conjunctival and three vaginal samples. All the negative cultures were passaged a further two times. Cell culture was identified as the most convenient method for the isolation of Chlamydia and remains essential to document the viability of the organism. Isolation of Chlamydia in the present study, highlights the importance of paying more attention to the bacterium as one of the main abortifacient pathogens along with other infectious causes of abortion.
Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capricolum (Mcc) is one of the causative agents of contagious agalactia (CA), which is an important disease in sheep and goats in the Mediterranean and Middle East countries. Mycoplasma agalactiae is the classic agent of CA in sheep and goats. Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies Capri (Mmc), Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capricolum (Mcc), and Mycoplasma putrefaciens (Mp) produce a clinically similar disease, more often in goats. The aim of the present study was to detect Mcc in sheep flocks in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran. Milk, ear canal, and eye swab samples were collected from 49 sheep flocks with clinical signs of CA or a history of a disease. All the samples were examined using both culture and molecular methods. In the molecular method,positive samples for the Mycoplasma genus were tested for M. mycoides cluster and Mcc. From 272 samples, 67, 87, and 62 samples were shown to be positive using the culture method, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and both culture and PCR methods, respectively. Mcc was detected in all the four M. mycoides cluster positive samples, including milk, ear canal, and eye swab samples. This is the first report of Mcc detection from East Azerbaijan. Our results showed that eye, milk, and ear canal samples could be suitable sources for Mcc detection in sheep flocks.
Agalactia is an infectious and contagious disease of small ruminants caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae (M. agalactiae). Although different microorganism strains contribute to this disease, M. agalactiae is known as the most prominent causative agent. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the rate of M. agalactiae involvement in contagious agalactia in the southeast region of Iran. Sampling was performed from milk, conjunctiva, ear lesions, and joints exudate of suspicious sheep and goat flocks according to the reports of Iran Veterinary Organization. The presence of Mycoplasma and its species, namely M. agalactiae, was evaluated through microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The detected microorganisms were confirmed to be Mycoplasma and M. agalactiae by the PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and lipoprotein target genes. According to the findings of present study, 14.8% and 36.0% of the samples were diagnosed as positive for Mycoplasma by culture and PCR, respectively. Moreover, the incidence of M. agalactiae was determined as 6.1% using the specific PCR method. Therefore, it is recommended to identify the other species of Mycoplasma in small ruminant samples involved with contagious agalactiae disease.
Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum (L. infantum),and its major reservoir hosts are domestic dogs, most of which are asymptomatic. This study aimed to detect L. infantum spp. in asymptomatic stray dogs by molecular and serological methods in Mashhad, Iran, during 2011-12. In this study, 94 asymptomatic stray dogs were randomly selected and their blood samples were collected for indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Furthermore, tissue samples from all the L. infantum seropositive stray dogs were examined using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Accordding to the results, 11.7 %(11/94) of the dogs were L. infantum seropositive. The PCR positivity rate of L. infantum was 63.6% (7/11) in at least one of the collected specimens of the seropositive dogs. The L. infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) was detected in the liver of 36% (4/11), the spleen of 27% (3/11), and the skin of 54.5 %(6/11) of the stray dogs. In this study, based on the molecular and serological examinations, visceral leishmaniasis infection among the stray dogs in Mashhad was confirmed.
Abortion in dairy cattle is generally defined as the loss of fetus on days 47-265 of pregnancy and can significantly reduce the income and capital gain of farmers and producers. Therefore, sufficient economical support and preventive measurements are essential for this issue. In this study, genetic materials were extracted from the abomasum rennet, as well as homogenous preparations of brain, kidney, spleen, liver, and lung tissues of 128 aborted fetuses. Afterward, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) tests were performed to identify the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), Neospora caninum parasite, and serovars of Leptospira species. In the PCR test, the samples with 380 bp, 340 bp, and 173 bp bands were considered as positive for serovars of Leptospira, Neospora caninum, and BHV-1, respectively. Moreover, a 290 bp band was regarded to be BVDV in the RT-PCR. According to the findings of the current study, 39 (30.47%) of the samples were infected with Neospora caninum, 26 (20.31%) with BVDV, 17 (13.28%) with BHV-1, and 18 (14.06%) with serovars of Leptospira. In addition, multiple-agent infections were also detected in the samples. As a conclusion, the microorganism Neospora caninum was identified as the most prevalent infectious cause of abortion in the eight agro-industrial and livestock complexes, in Qazvin province, Iran.
Contagious agalactia is an infectious syndrome of sheep that is characterized by mastitis with reduction of milk production, arthritis, abortion, and keratoconjunctivitis. The disease is rapidly spread by the contact of the infected animals with the healthy ones. Domestic sheep and goats of both sexes can be infected at an equivalent frequency. Most of the researchers use culture and molecular methods for the isolation and identification of Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma agalactiae is the main cause of the disease in sheep. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify M. agalactiae by using culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in the sheep herds in Guilan province, Iran. A total of 71 specimens were collected from seven sheep herds with clinical signs of agalactia disease. All of the seven sheep herds (100%) were positive either in PPLO agar or Mycoplasma PCR test. Out of the 71 specimens, 50 (70.4%) cases were positive; however, 21 (29.6%) samples were negative. Furthermore, 40 (80%) cases of the positive samples were detected for the presence of Mycoplasma by the PCR method; nonetheless, 34 (68%) samples were positive in culture. Additionally, out of the 40 positive samples in Mycoplasma PCR, 11 (27.5%) samples were detected in M. agalactiae-specific PCR. The samples that were positive for Mycoplasma were mostly detected in the ear/vaginal, milk, and ear swab samples, respectively, by culture and PCR methods. The most positive samples of Mycoplasma / M. agalactiae were obtained from the ear and vaginal samples. Our findings demonstrated that Mycoplasma was one of the main etiological agents of the contagious agalactia in Guilan province. In addition, PCR was found to be more successful than the culture method in the detection of Mycoplasma.
This study evaluated the effects of licorice extract and probiotic on performance, excreta characteristics and welfare-related parameters of broiler chickens reared in high stocking density. Three hundred and thirty-six 1-day old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replicates for 42 days. Treatments were as follows: (a) positive control (PC, 12 chicks/m
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first line of medication for OCD treatment; however, 40%-60% of patients with OCD do not respond to SSRIs adequately. There are growing pieces of evidence which suggest a significant role for the glutamatergic system in the genesis of OCD and its consequent treatment. In the present study, we aimed to assess the association of SLC1A1 polymorphisms (rs301430, rs2228622 and rs3780413) with OCD and its clinical characteristics, as well as the importance of these SNPs in the response of OCD patients to SSRI pharmacotherapy.Sample study consisted of 243 OCD cases and 221 control subjects. Patients were treated 12 weeks with fluvoxamine (daily dose: 150-300 mg). Based on the reduction in obsessive and compulsive severity scores using Y-BOCS severity scale, patients were classified as responders, non-responders and refractory. A total of 239, 228 and 215 patients were genotyped for rs301430, rs2228622 and rs3780413, respectively, by the means of PCR-RFLP.No association was detected between SLC1A1 SNPs and OCD, except an association between the familial form of the disease in males with rs2228622 (P = 0.033). The results of pharmacogenetic studies revealed the associations of two SLC1A1 SNPs, rs2228622 (P = 0.031) and rs3780413 (P = 0.008), with treatment response.Results of the current study suggest a role for the glutamate transporter in OCD treatment response with SSRIs which should encourage researchers to further investigate the importance of glutamate transporter in OCD pharmacogenetics.
Social Stigma is potentially a major problem in multiple sclerosis patients which strongly affects the quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of perceived stigma in patients with MS in a sample of Iranian population.This cross-sectional study was performed on 305 MS patients who were referred to Iranian Multiple Sclerosis Society in 2014. The main variables were perceived stigma, age, sex, marital status, educational level, occupation, duration of the disease, type of symptoms, disability expanded status scale, family history and economic status. Social stigma was measured through a 20-item questionnaire which was developed by authors and the reliability was assessed in a pilot study.The frequency of perceived stigma was significantly associated with occupation, disease duration, and visibility of symptoms, level of disability and the economic condition. There were no significant relationships between perceived stigma and age, sex, marital status, level of education and family history. About 44 percent of patients preferred to hide their disease from others and 52.6 percent believed that this disease would stigmatize them in society. Nearly, half of patients preferred not to mention their disease in job interviews.Recognition of the impacts of perceived stigma on various aspects of the patients' lives are necessary to find appropriate strategies to deal with stigma and its consequences. Training programs can improve the patients' skills for coping with stigma. Furthermore, programs aimed to upgrade public knowledge and reduce the negative attitudes toward the disease should be promoted.
The current study evaluated the oncology nurse's knowledge, attitude, related factors of cancer-related pain management (CPM), and clinical recommendations for improving knowledge and attitude. In this systematic review, international databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of science (WOS), Science Direct, and Scopus) were searched for relevant studies published in English language from March 30, 2000 to March 30, 2018. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Hoy instrument. Out of 888 initial studies, 12 studies performed on 3574 participants were included in the final stage of the review. Based on the results, most studies indicated that nurses had a poor (n = 4) or moderate (n = 4) knowledge of CPM. The lowest and the highest knowledge levels were 28.5% and 75%, respectively. According to most studies, nurses had a fair (average) (n = 4) or negative (n = 3) attitude toward CPM. The important factors related to the nurses' knowledge of CPM included previous pain-related education programs (n = 7) and having work experience with cancer patients (n = 4). The most important barrier was the deficit in staff's knowledge of pain (n = 2). The important clinical recommendations for improving nurses' levels of knowledge included the implementation of educational programs (n = 9), training programs (n = 3) on CPM and including CPM topics in nursing curricula (n = 5). This systematic review showed that most nurses had poor knowledge of CPM and a fair attitude toward CPM, indicating the importance of considering the barriers to knowledge, strengthening the positive relevant factors, and using clinical recommendations based on clinical guidelines such as including CPM topics in nursing curricula and implementing educational programs on CPM to improve the knowledge, attitude, and skills of oncology nurses. The results of the present study could be used by policymakers to provide care for cancer patients and manage their pain.
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) interacts with many gene promoters and transcription factors such as hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF-1α). Recent evidences proposed that STAT3 and HIF-1α together are responsible for angiogenesis and immune response suppression. The main aim of this study was to inhibit STAT3 and HIF-1α and assess their effects on the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. S31-201 and PX-478 were used to inhibit STAT3 and HIF-1α, respectively. In both hypoxic and normoxic conditions, intracellular levels of HIF-1α were evaluated by western blotting and flow cytometry. Supernatant levels were also measured for VEGF, IL-10, and TGF-β concentration. S31-201 suppressed proliferation of MCF-7 cells and led to reduced HIF-1α expression in both hypoxic and normoxic conditions. It also decreased production of the immunosuppressive cytokines. STAT3 inhibition suppressed tumor cell growth and cytokine production in a HIF-1α-dependent manner, and can be used as a promising target in cancer therapies.