Network Scale Up (NSU) is an indirect size estimation method, where participants are questioned on sensitive behaviors of their social network members. Therefore the visibility of the behavior affects the replies and estimates. Many attempts to estimate the visibility are made. The aims of this manuscript are to review main methods to address the visibility, and to provide a summary of reported Visibility Factor (VF) across populations.We systematically searched relevant data bases and Google. In total 15 studies and reports were found which calculated the VF.VF calculation studies have been applied in nine countries, mostly in East Asia and East Europe. Methods applied were expert opinion, comparison of NSU with another method, game of contact, social respect, and came out ratio. VF was calculated for heavy drug users; People Who Inject Drugs (PWID); Female Sex Workers (FSW) and their clients; Male who have Sex with other Male (MSM); alcohol and methamphetamine users; those who experienced extra/ pre-marital sex, and abortion. VF varied from 1.4% in Japan to 52% in China for MSM; 34% in Ukraine to 111% in China for FSW; and 12% among Iranian students to 57% in Ukraine for PWID.Our review revealed that VF estimates were heterogonous, and is not available for most settings in particular Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, except Iran. More concrete methodologies to estimate VF is required.
Relationship between glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1, OMIM: 134660) variants and the risk of drug dependency is unknown. Chronic use of illegal drugs leads to oxidative stress, which can be alleviated by cellular detoxification mechanisms. There are several polymorphisms in the GSTP1, including Ile105Val (rs1695). This polymorphism leads to an Ile105Val amino acid change and may alter the GSTP1 enzyme activity. There is no study on the association between this polymorphism and risks of heroin (HD) or opium (OD) dependency. This paper consists of two case-control studies. The first study consisted of 442 HD subjects and 794 healthy controls. The second study consisted of 143 cases with OD and 565 healthy blood donors as controls. Genotyping were carried out using PCR based method. The Ile/Val (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65-1.07, P = 0.165) and Val/Val (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.56-1.36, P = 0.879) genotypes did not show significant association with the risk of HD. Neither the Ile/Val (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.49-1.06, P = 0.103) nor the Val/Val (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.29-1.30, P = 0.209) was associated with the risk of OD. The GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism was not associated with the risk of dependency to opium and heroin.
Multilayer graphene membranes could be considered as an efficient membrane in water desalination processes based on the reverse osmosis (RO) method. In this study, we designed multilayer graphene channels using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach. The effects of different parameters, such as channel width and length, and the pressure on the operation of the designed channels were examined, in the absence and presence of electric fields with various amplitudes and directions. The results indicated that the ion separation and water flow through the channels were modified under the application of the electric fields. Additionally, it has been shown that salt rejection and water flow could be controlled by the channel's structural parameters mentioned above. The obtained results of this study at the molecular level can improve the knowledge of designing membranes for water purification processes. Graphical abstract Using MD method a multilayer graphene membrane was designed to separate Na
This study seeks to develop a method of teaching ethics to nursing students using games. We used the one-group pretest-posttest design with 30 undergraduate nursing students as participants. Professional ethics education was provided for 17 weeks in 90-minute sessions. The Lutzen ethical sensitivity questionnaire and a checklist of the satisfaction levels of games used measured the effects of training. Repeated-measures ANOVA and the Greenhouse-Geisser correction were used to measure ethics game satisfaction. After training, total moral sensitivity questionnaire scores increased significantly (p = 0.02). The score on awareness of the relationship with the patient and the application of ethics concepts in ethical decisions from the subdomain of moral sensitivity increased significantly. Card sorting and drawing or art production earned the highest scores of satisfaction. The results show that playing games is a useful approach to developing moral sensitivity among nursing students to make them more sensitive toward ethics issues in their professional environment.
Operating rooms (ORs) in hospitals are sensitive wards because patients can get infections. This work aimed to characterize the type and concentration of bioaerosols in nine ORs of an educational hospital before and after sterilization and disinfection. During 2017, fungal samples were incubated at 25-28 °C for 3-7 days and bacterial samples at 37 °C for 24-48 h. The study results showed that the concentrations of fungi before cleaning procedures (for both of disinfection and sterilization) were limited from 4.83 to 18.40 CFU/m
In this work, stimuli-responsive graphene oxide/polymer brush nanocomposites (GPBNs) prepared through the polymerization of acrylic acid (AA), N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and acrylated β-cyclodextrin (Ac-β-CD) from the graphene oxide (GO) surface. The attachment of polymers on the GO surface was approved using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphological change on the GO surface after polymer grafting. Transition electron microscopy (TEM) showed that polymeric brushes were decorated on the GO surface. The growth of polymer brushes on the GO was further confirmed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Both hydrophilic (doxorubicin, DOX) and hydrophobic (Methotrexate MTX) drugs were co-loaded in the prepared graphene Oxide/Polyacrylated β-cyclodextrin/polyacrylic acid/poly N-isopropylacrylamide brush nanocomposite (GCANBN). Drug releases from GCANBN were studied using UV-vis. MTT assay was used for the evaluation of in-vitro cytotoxicity of GCANBN. The prepared system showed its efficacy as a nanocarrier for both types of drugs.
Based on the importance of central metal complexes to interact with DNA, in this research focused on synthesis of some new water soluble Mn(II) complexes 1-4 which modified substituted in ligand at the same position with N, Me, H, and Cl. These complexes were isolated and characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and UV-vis spectroscopy. DNA binding studies had been studied by using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), viscosity measurements, emission spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis which proposed the metal buildings go about as effective DNA binders were studied in the presence of Fish-DNA (FS-DNA) which showed the highest binding affinity to DNA with hydrophobic and electron donating substituent. Cell toxicity assays against two human leukemia (Jurkat) and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell lines showed that the complex 3 exhibited a remarkable effects equal to a famous anticancer drug, cisplatin that high cytotoxic activity strongly depend on the hydrophobic substituted ligand. In the theoretical part, density functional theory (DFT) was performed to optimize the geometry of complexes through IR and UV spectra of the complexes that ligand substitution did not affect the geometry and theoretical IR and UV spectra showed good resemblance to the experimental data. The docking studies calculated the lowest-energy between complexes and DNA with the minor grooves mode.
Mechanical properties of muscle tissue are crucial in biomechanical modeling of the human body. Muscle tissue is a combination of Muscle Fibers (MFs) and connective tissue including collagen and elastin fibers. There are a lot of passive muscle models in the literature but most of them do not consider any distinction between Collagen Fibers (CFs) and MFs, or at least do not consider the mechanical effects of the CFs on the Three-Dimensional (3-D) behavior of tissue. As a consequence, unfortunately, they cannot describe the observed stress-stretch behavior in tissue in which the reinforced direction is not parallel to the MF direction. In this research, a new passive muscle model is presented, in which the CFs are separately considered in the formulation: they are distributed along the MFs in a cross-shaped arrangement. Thanks to this new architecture, a mechanical reinforced direction can be proposed, in addition to the muscle main fiber direction. The passive biomechanical properties of the genioglossus muscle of a bovine tongue have been measured under uniaxial tensile tests. To characterize the 3-D response of the tissue, tests have been performed in different directions with respect to the MF direction. Moreover, a Constitutive Law (CL) has been proposed for modeling this behavior. In addition to our measurements on the bovine genioglossus muscle, results published in the literature on experimental data from the longissimus dorsi of pigs and the chicken pectoralis muscle were used to appraise the applicability of the proposed model. It is demonstrated that the proposed passive muscle model provides an accurate description of the fiber-oriented nature of muscle tissue. Also, it has been shown that using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) it might be possible to predict the angle θ between CFs and MF.
Cyanobacteria produce toxins such as microcystin-LR (MC-LR), which are associated with potential hepatotoxicity in humans. The detection of cyanobacteria and their toxins in drinking water and sea food is therefore crucial. To date, methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA), and Raman spectroscopy have been employed to monitor MC-LR levels. Although these techniques are precise and sensitive, they require expensive instrumentation, well-trained personnel and involve time-consuming processes meaning that their application is generally limited to well-resourced, centralised laboratory facilities. Among the emerging MC-LR detection methods, aptasensors have received great attention because of their remarkable sensitivity, selectivity, and simplicity. Aptamers, also known as "chemical" or "artificial antibodies", serve as the recognition moieties in aptasensors. This review explores the current state-of-the-art of MC-LR aptasensor platforms, evaluating the advantages and, limitations of typical transduction technologies to identify the most efficient detection system for the potentially harmful cyanobacteria associated toxin.
Astaxanthin (AST) is a potent lipid-soluble keto-carotenoid with auspicious effects on human health. It protects organisms against a wide range of diseases with excellent safety and tolerability. Various imperative biological activities in vitro and in vivo models have been suggested for AST. This review article is focused on the therapeutic potentials, biological activities and benefical health effects of AST. The pharmacological mechanisms of action of AST in the treatment and prevention of the peripheral and central nervous system diseases was also reviewed to provide new insights to researchers. Finally, we suggested a novel hypothesis for the mechanism of action of AST in neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury.
A simple and selective colorimetric method for the detection of perilous peroxide explosives was developed using the peroxidase mimetic activity of silver nanoparticles/flake-like zinc metal-organic framework nanocomposite (Ag@ZnMOF). The synthesis of Ag@ZnMOF contained the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inside the fine pores of Zn metal-organic framework (ZnMOF). High reactive AgNPs as well as great surface area of MOFs provided a synergetic and high improved catalytic activity for the composite which was studied as a peroxidase mimic in hydrogen peroxide (H
The mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic membrane have the ability to secrete and release some factors that can promote the repair of damaged tissues. This secretome contains proteins and factors that reduce apoptosis and increase angiogenesis in the ischemia/reperfusion models. The present study was conducted to determine whether this secretome provides protection against transient focal cerebral ischemia.A rat model of focal cerebral ischemia was established through middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 min and 24 h reperfusion. The amniotic mesenchymal stem cells-conditioned medium (AMSC-CM) at the dose of 0.5 µl was injected intracerebroventriculary (ICV) 30 min after reperfusion. Infarct volume, brain edema, neurobehavioral functions, and blood brain barrier (BBB) integrity were assessed 24 h after reperfusion. Neuronal loss and expression of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in motor cortex were evaluated by nissl staining and immunohistochemistry assay respectively.ICV administration of AMSC-CM markedly reduced infarct volume, brain edema and the evans blue penetration rate compared with MCAO group (P < 0.05). Additionally, post-treatment with AMSC-CM significantly reduced neuronal loss, neurological motor disorders and expression of caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in motor cortex compared with MCAO group (P < 0.05).The results of this study indicate that treatment with AMSC-CM improves the pathological effects in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia. These findings establish a substantial foundation for stroke therapy and future research.
Low doses of Bisphenol A (BPA) during development may affect reproduction. In this study, Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0.5 or 50 µg BPA/kg bw/day via drinking water from gestational day 3.5 to postnatal day 22. Anogenital distance, organ weight, histopathology of reproductive organs, hormone analysis and sperm morphology were evaluated in male offspring. In this study no major effects of BPA on male reproduction in midpubertal (postnatal day 35) or adult (12-month-old) rats were revealed, apart from a higher prevalence of mild inflammatory cell infiltrate in cauda epididymis in adult rats exposed to 50 µg BPA/kg bw/day. No BPA-related effects on sexual development were seen but care should be taken when evaluating histopathology in midpuberty testis due to large morphological variation. Results from the present study show no major signs of altered male reproduction in rats exposed to low doses of BPA during gestation and lactation.
This study attempted to evaluate the efficacy of ultra-low-dose intravenous (IV) naloxone combined with IV morphine, as compared to IV morphine alone, in terms of reducing pain and morphine-induced side effects in patients with renal colic.In this double-blind clinical trial, 150 patients aged 34 to 60 years old who presented to the emergency department (ED) with renal colic were randomly allocated to either an intervention group that received ultra-low-dose IV naloxone combined with IV morphine or to a control group that received morphine plus a placebo. The severity of pain, sedation, and nausea were assessed and recorded for all patients at entrance to the ED (T1), then at 20 (T2), 40 (T3), 60 (T4), 120 (T5), and 180 (T6) minutes after starting treatment. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used for the assessment of pain and nausea intensities, and the Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) was used to assess sedation.A GEE model revealed that patients in the naloxone group had non-significantly reduced pain scores compared to those in the morphine group (coefficient = -0.68; 95% CI: -1.24 to -0.11, Wald X2 (1) = 5.41, p = 0.02). The sedation outcome demonstrated no statistically significant differences at T1 to T4 among patients with renal colic compared to the ones who only received morphine. At T5 and T6, 1.5% vs. 20% and 1.5% vs. 16.9% of subjects from the naloxone group versus the morphine group obtained RSS scores equal to 3, respectively (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively).Compared to patients who only received IV morphine, co-treatment of ultra-low-dose naloxone with morphine could not provide better analgesia and sedation/agitation states in renal colic patients.
Considering the increase in the non-communicable diseases associated with tobacco use in recent decades in Iran, it is necessary to have a general view of the current condition. This study aimed to identify factors associated with tobacco use and to estimate the probability of a 5-year transition in the stages of tobacco use in an adult population.In this study, 5190 people in the 40-64-year-old population of Shahroud (North East of Iran) were interviewed in 2009 and 2014 on tobacco smoking. The association of independent variables with tobacco smoking was evaluated using the population-averaged logit model. We calculated smoking transition probabilities from non-smoking to current smoking and past-smoking stages during a 5-year span.The prevalence of current tobacco smoking in 40-69-years age group was 11.1% (95% CI 10.3-12.0), 1% among women (95% CI 0.8-1.3) and 25.6% among men (95% CI 23.7-27.6). During this 5-year period, the probability of transition of a non-smoker to an overall current tobacco smoker was 2.3%. Meanwhile, 18.5% of the overall current tobacco smokers had changed into past smokers. Unemployed (OR = 2), male gender (OR = 53.9), widow/widowers (OR = 5.4), divorces (OR = 3.3), and high economic status (OR = 1.2) are associated to tobacco smoking.Compared with the other studies, the prevalence of tobacco use in this population is low but transition rate of non-smokers into current smokers or past smokers is high. Conducting interventions on determinants of starting and quitting smoking and education and awareness raising on the risk and harms of smoking seems necessary.
Scientometrics is a discipline that analyzes scientific publications to explore the structure and growth of science. In this work, the quantitative evaluation of the productivity of the Iranian Biomedical Journal (IBJ) is reviewed.The analysis was done based on a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical scientometric study. Data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Scimago Databases (2000-2017). Scopus and Scimago were used for data search and feature analysis. Analyzed scientometric indicators included the number of citations, publications, CiteScore, SJR (Scimago Journal Rank), SNIP (source normalized impact per paper), self-citation, and Q (quartile) trend.The evaluation of 586 documents, published in IBJ from 2000 to 2017, revealed that most of these documents (99.7%) have been published in the areas of biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology, which yielded to an upgrade in Journal Q ranking from Q4 (in 2000) to Q2 (in 2016).Nearly all of the scientometric indicators, evaluated in this study, were found on the rise. Therefore, a growing trend from Q2 to Q1 is predicted for the near future. It is recommended that the journal focuses on a specific subject area to improve the indicators and quality of the journal, in a timely manner.
This study was conducted to investigate the combination of both sprinkler irrigation and conservation tillage in sustainable agriculture for wheat production. To exploit the advantages of the two systems, conventional tillage along with surface irrigation (T
The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of transmembrane-spanning receptors that are sentinels of both innate and adaptive immunity. Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) are the most commonly prescribed therapeutic agents for treating hypercholesterolemia globally. However, statin therapy appears to have pleiotropic effects including attenuation of chronic low-grade inflammation and modulation of TLR activity. Statins through abolition of TLR4 expression and regulation of the TLR4/Myd88/NF-κB signaling pathway may slow the progression of atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. In this review, we have focused on the impact and mechanism of action of statins on cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases.